Apomorphine (Apomorphine Hydrochloride, Uprima, Ixense)

The discoveries of the last decades in the field of neurophysiology erection led to the development of innovative drugs for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. This centrally acting agents, mainly different forms of sublingual apomorphine (Uprima, Ixense).

Apomorphine hydrochloride is an agonist of dopamine D2 receptors located primarily in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Stimulation of these receptors activate proerektilnye central pathways, including NO and oxytocin system, in turn causing an erection.


Apomorphine is a fast and effective treatment for erectile dysfunction.

Defined plasma concentrations observed after an average of 10 minutes after taking the drug, leading to clinical effect within 18-19 minutes, coupled with sexual stimulation.

The clinical study showed that the average effectiveness of sublingual apomorphine hydrochloride in the treatment of erectile dysfunction of various origins is 45%.

In most cases the drug was well tolerated. The most common side effects of apomorphine at the doses of 2 and 3 mg were nausea (20%), headache (7%), dizziness (4%). In some cases, apomorphine can cause vasovagal syndrome manifested transient fainting or syncope (0.2%).

Thus, the first agent is apomorphine central action approved for use in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in a number of countries. The main advantage of the drug is the possibility of its application in parallel with nitrates, the reception of which is a contraindication for the use of PDE-5 inhibitors.

Precautions and Possible Side Effects of Apomorphine

Apomorphine is generally safe when prescribed and administered by a veterinarian, but there are some precautions that should be followed.

Apomorphine should not be used to induce vomiting body for life pdf on a dog with hypersensitivity to the drug or a known allergy to it.

If the animal is physically weak, comatose, experiencing a seizure or having difficulty breathing, the medication should not be administered. Apomorphine should also be avoided if the animal has already vomited or ingested caustic agents, petroleum distillates or acid, as regurgitation could cause further damage.

If the animal does not vomit after an initial dose, additional doses should not be given, as it will more than likely not induce vomiting. Additional doses could result in toxicity.

Potential side effects can include excitement, restlessness, nervous system depression, or respiratory depression. Side effects such as these are most common when the animal receives a larger than necessary dose.